Kaunas Tourism Kaunas Hotels Kaunas Bed and Breakfast Kaunas Vacation Rentals Kaunas Vacation Packages Flights to Kaunas Kaunas Restaurants Things to Do in Kaunas Kaunas Shopping Kaunas Travel Forum Kaunas … The Provisional Government hoped that the Germans would re-establish Lithuanian independence or at least allow some degree of autonomy (similar to the Slovak Republic), was seeking the protection of its citizens and did not support the Nazis' Holocaust policy. 1944). Winters are relatively cold, and sometimes snowy with average temperatures ranging from −8 to 0 °C (18 to 32 °F), and rarely drop below −15 °C (5 °F). Located to the East of the Old Town is the city's New Town, which started developing in 1847 and got its name when it became a distinct part of the city. , Beginning in 1944, the Red Army began offensives that eventually led to the reconquest of all three of the Baltic states. What Country is Kaunas in? Visitors can easily reach Kaunas from Vilnius via a quick an inexpensive train ride, making it an easy, educational, and fun day trip. The most important is the Kaunas County Public Library.  At the time, the Lithuanian Armed Forces had 26,084 soldiers (of which 1,728 officers) and 2,031 civil servants. Kaunas of Lithuania seeks to become a changing force for a local community as well as for the communities with similar problems and issues all over Europe. A part of its collection was transferred to Martynas Mažvydas National Library of Lithuania in 1963. The Polish name is Kowno [ˈkɔvnɔ]; the Belarusian name is Koўна, Kowna [ˈkɔwna]. Previous paper monthly tickets were in use until August 2009. " According to Lithuanian-American Holocaust historian Saulius Sužiedėlis, "none of this amounted to a public scolding which alone could have persuaded at least some of the Lithuanians who had volunteered or been co-opted into participating in the killings to rethink their behavior." The Old Town is the historical center of Kaunas. An aurochs has replaced a wisent, which was depicted in the Soviet-era emblem that was used since 1969.  President Antanas Smetona categorically declined to accept most of the ultimatum demands, argued for military resistance and was supported by Kazys Musteikis, Konstantinas Šakenis, Kazimieras Jokantas, however the Commander of the Armed Forces Vincas Vitkauskas, Divisional general Stasys Raštikis, Kazys Bizauskas, Antanas Merkys and most of the Lithuanian Government members decided that it would be impossible, especially due to the previously stationed Soviet soldiers, and accepted the ultimatum. The city increased once more when it was connected by bridges with Aleksotas and Vilijampolė districts in the 1920s.. Zwartendijk agreed to help them and Jews who had fled from German-occupied Poland also sought his assistance. The control of Vilnius and most of the Lithuania's territory was also shortly taken over by the rebels. , On 23 June 1941 at 9:28 am Tautiška giesmė, the national anthem of Lithuania, was played on the radio in Kaunas. It is responsible for municipality laws. It was the first coordinated Lithuanian–German action. , During the interwar period, Kaunas was nicknamed as the Little Paris because of its rich cultural and academic life, fashion, Art Deco architecture, Lithuanian National Romanticism architectural style buildings as well as popular furniture, interior design of the time and widespread café culture. The young Lithuanian state enthusiastically pledges to contribute to the organization of Europe on a new basis in front of the whole world innocent conscience. It is geographically positioned both in the Northern and Eastern hemispheres of the Earth.  The first German scouts, lieutenant Flohret and four privates, entered Kaunas on 24 June and found it in friendly hands. After the proclamation of Lithuanian independence in 1990, Soviet attempts to suppress the rebellion focused on the Sitkūnai Radio Station.  He approached the Kaunas War Field Commandant General Oswald Pohl and the Military Command Representative General Karl von Roques by trying to plead for him to spare the Jews, however they replied that the Gestapo is handling these issues and that they cannot help. , Kovno Governorate, with a centre in Kovno (Kaunas), was formed in 1843. Things to Do in Kaunas County, Lithuania: See Tripadvisor's 26,650 traveller reviews and photos of Kaunas County attractions. "Žemaičių vyskupystės istorinis ir dailės palikimas", "Kauno kunigų seminarija – katalikybės ir lietuvybės židinys", "Šarvuota Lietuva: kiek iš tikro mūsų kariuomenė turėjo tankų? The most Lithuanian of all cities in the country (93% of the population of Kaunas are Lithuanians) will welcome you hospitably, open your heart, walk along ancient streets and squares, and show you all their attractions. Lithuania (/ ˌ l ɪ θj u ˈ eɪ n i ə / LITH-ew-AY-nee-ə; Lithuanian: Lietuva [lʲɪɛtʊˈvɐ]), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Northern and Baltic region of Europe.Lithuania is one of the Baltic states. Kaunas is home to some historic venues such as: the main stadium of the city—S.Dariaus ir S.Girėno Sporto Centras (total capacity 9,000), which is also the Lithuanian soccer club FBK Kaunas's and Lithuanian national football team home stadium established in 1923, and Kaunas Sports Hall, completed in 1939 for the Third European Basketball Championship. Kaunas History. In 1950 it was abolished, and the Kaunas province (sritis) was established.  Kaunas, along with Vilnius, became the scene of nearly constant demonstrations as the Lithuanians, embarked on a process of self-discovery. 8 616 23828, e-mail email@example.com Company code 135491916, VAT no.  The city follows in suit of the country and is lowland. Shortly afterwards, on 17 June 1940 the puppet People's Government of Lithuania was formed, which consistently destroyed Lithuanian society and political institutions and opened the way for the Communist Party to establish itself. The most developed industries in Kaunas are amongst the food and beverage industries, textile and light industries, chemical industry, publishing and processing, pharmaceuticals, metal industry, wood processing and furniture industry. At present the Lithuanian Central Credit Union has 61 members.. A. Mickevičiaus st. 58, LT– 44244 Kaunas, ph. Kaunas is also one of the major river ports in the Baltic States and has two piers designated for tourism purposes and located on the banks of Nemunas river and Kaunas Reservoir—the largest Lithuanian artificial lake, created in 1959 by damming the Nemunas near Kaunas and Rumšiškės. Some of the best examples of cultural life in Kaunas are theatres of various styles: The city plan is mixed. In strict conspiracy, Catholic priest Sigitas Tamkevičius (now the Archbishop Metropolitan of Kaunas) implemented this idea and its first issue was published in the Alytus district on 19 March 1972. The Lithuanian Armed Forces were ordered not to resist and the Lithuanian Air Force remained on the ground. It is in the centre of the country, and its capital is Kaunas. It was reorganized into a college in 1653.  On that night before officially accepting the ultimatum, the Soviet forces executed Lithuanian border guard Aleksandras Barauskas [lt] near the Byelorussian SSR border. to prevent the spread of the COVID-19 virus in the country. Surrounded by the Druskai forest on the banks of the Nemunas River, Villa Luxuria features classical design and offers 24 rooms of different type and 6 summer houses. However, we are ready to answer your questions and help (I-V 9.00-18.00; VI 10.00-16.00; VII 10.00-15.00) Please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org, phone number +370 616 23828 or +370 616 50991 International route connecting Kaliningrad, Russia and Kharkiv, Ukraine, also crosses Kaunas.  He also informed Juozas Urbšys about the Soviet–German secret protocols and showed maps of the spheres of influence. Kaunas is at the crossroads of the main national motorways crossing the country from east to west and from north to south. residential house of Ragutis factory, built in 1925). The Town Hall is still a center of culture today, it holds weddings and is the home of the Museum of Ceramics..  However, on 7 October 1939 the Lithuanian delegation departed to Moscow where they later had to sign the Soviet–Lithuanian Mutual Assistance Treaty due to the unfavorable situation. Its main goal was not to fight with the Soviets, but to secure the city from inside (secure organizations, institutions, enterprises) and declare independence. Farthest Point from Kaunas, Lithuania Estimated population of 342,768, - scroll down to which country and city is farthest from Kaunas, Lithuania. It has been repeatedly discontinued and reopened, so the most current status is unclear. On 30 June 1993, the historical coat of arms of Kaunas city was re-established by a special presidential decree. From November 7th, 2020, The Tourism Information Centre at Rotušes a. Historical Outlines, "KAUNAS PHOTO – festival in Lithuania, since 2004", Tourist Information Centre of Kaunas region, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kaunas&oldid=1001579951, Municipalities administrative centres of Lithuania, Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments, Articles with dead external links from November 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with Lithuanian-language sources (lt), Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with possible nickname list, Pages using infobox settlement with possible motto list, Articles containing Belarusian-language text, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles containing Yiddish-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2017, Articles lacking reliable references from October 2017, Official website different in Wikidata and Wikipedia, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Source 1: World Meteorological Organization, Source 2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun only), Lithuanian open-air Ethnographic Museum displaying the heritage of Lithuanian rural life in a vast collection of authentic resurrected buildings is situated east of Kaunas on the bank of, The apartments of some famous Kaunas natives, including, Vilnius Academy of Art Kaunas Faculty of Art, This page was last edited on 20 January 2021, at 09:22. Šlovės savaitė: kaip lietuviai laimėjo hibridinį karą prieš Kremlių", "1941 m. sukilimas ir nepriklausomybės viltys", "The History of Lithuania's National Anthem", "Kodėl J. Brazaičio perlaidojimo ceremonija sukėlė tiek aistrų? It was largely organized by the military, especially general Povilas Plechavičius, and resulted in the replacement of the democratically elected Government and President Kazys Grinius with a conservative nationalist authoritarian Government led by Antanas Smetona. The population was recorded as 25.8% Russian, 22.7% Polish, 6.6% Lithuanian. After visiting Estonia and Latvia a couple of years ago, I had one more Baltic country left to see.  In 1441 Kaunas joined the Hanseatic League, and Hansa merchant office Kontor was opened—the only one in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In order to establish the legitimacy of the government and design the plans of Lithuania's "legal accession to the USSR", on 1 July, the Seimas of Lithuania was dismissed and elections to the puppet People's Seimas were announced. Kaunas hosted finals of the widely appreciated EuroBasket 2011. Before Lithuania regained independence, the city was generally known in English as Kovno, the traditional Slavicized form of its name. In addition, Kaunas is home to Kaunas Zoo, the only state-operated zoo in all of Lithuania. 1997 p. 293. A LED lighting assembly plant was opened in Kaunas by South Korean company LK Technology in February 2011. Furthermore, in the beginning of the occupation, the Prime Minister of the Provisional Government of Lithuania Juozas Ambrazevičius convened the meeting in which the ministers participated together with the former President Kazys Grinius, Bishop Vincentas Brizgys and others. K. Dawisha, B. Parrott.  The Ninth Fortress has been renovated into a memorial for the wars and is the site where nearly 50,000 Lithuanians were killed during Nazi occupation. Распределение населения по родному языку. , In the first issue of the daily Į laisvę (Towards Freedom) newspaper, the Independence Restoration Declaration was published, which had been previously announced on the radio. Puttini). , The Lithuanian Central Credit Union—national cooperative federation for credit unions established in 2001, is located in Kaunas. It led to new forms of resistance: passive resistance all around Lithuania. It was considerably modernized by Antanas Gustaitis and started to build Lithuanian ANBO military aircraft. Find what to do today, this weekend, or in January.  The ensemble of the Church of the Holy Trinity and the Bernardine monastery (started in the late 16th century), the so-called Napoleonic House (16th century) has Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque and Mannerist architecture features. It is also the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Kaunas. In March 2015 Kaunas interwar buildings has received a solid award—European Heritage Label. All the city's streets were paved, horse-drawn transportation was replaced with modern bus lines, new suburbs were planned and built (Žaliakalnis neighbourhood in particular), and new parks and squares were established. Kalniečiai, completed in 1985), public buildings (e.g. The coat of arms features a white aurochs with a golden cross between its horns, set against a deep red background. Kauno miesto savivaldybė; Kauno miesto želdynų sistemos formavimas", "Santakos Park in Kaunas, Lithuania, Secured by TLC Fencing During Pope Francis' Visit", "Šie rūmai Kaune stulbina prabanga – norėtų pamatyti kiekvienas", UK Trade&Investment. A Chronicle of the Events of January 1991 and Later Months, which were a critical part of the remaining free media", "Kaunas of 1919–1940, Lithuania – Creative Europe – European Commission", "Kaunas Was Awarded a European Heritage Label", "UNESCO pripažinimo besiekiant: 10 vertingiausių Kauno modernizmo architektūros perliukų", "Kaunas 1919-1939: The Capital Inspired by the Modern Movement", "Kaunas paskelbtas 2022-ųjų Europos kultūros sostine", "Paaiškėjo Kauno M.K. A round of the UIM F2 World Championship is held by the site of the old Kaunas Lagoon pier every year.  Kaunas has been selected as the European Capital of Culture for 2022, together with Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg.. , On 26 June 1941 the German military command ordered the rebel groups to disband and disarm. Kaunas County. Places of interest near Aleksotas, Šilainiai and Eiguliai. Retrieved on 12 April 2011. Already in July, in a conversation the Tilsit Nazi Gestapo agent Dr Heinz Gräfe clearly stated to Stasys Raštikis that the Provisional Government was formed without German knowledge. , As the Second World War began, there were 30,000 Jews living in Kaunas, comprising about 25% of the city's population. As defined by Eurostat, the population of Kaunas functional urban area, that stretches beyond the city limits, is estimated at 383,764 (as of 2017), while according to statistics of Kaunas territorial health insurance fund, there are 437,283 permanent inhabitants (as of 2018) in Kaunas city and Kaunas district municipalities combined. , A minor planet 73059 Kaunas, discovered by Lithuanian astronomers Kazimieras Černis and Justas Zdanavičius, in 2002, is named after the city of Kaunas.  Before its disestablishment, Air Lithuania had its head office in Kaunas. 1920), LFLS Kaunas baseball club (est. First railway connection passing through Kaunas was constructed in 1859–1861 and opened in 1862. Remember the furthest point (i.e. Commander Vaidotas of the Kaunas castle garrison, with 36 men, tried to break through, but was taken prisoner. It is a city of medieval history as well as modern entertainment with castle ruins, churches, and cathedrals, as well as galleries, museums, theatres, and outdoor recreation. During the interwar period, it served as the temporary capital of Lithuania, when Vilnius was seized by Poland between 1920 and 1939. , The city also was a particularly important center for the Lithuanian Armed Forces. The aurochs was the original heraldic symbol of the city, established in 1400. The city of Kaunas has a number of parks and public open spaces. Get directions, maps, and traffic for Kaunas, Kaunas County. There are a lot of them. , Multiple Red Army divisions stationed around Kaunas, including the brutal 1st Motor Rifle Division NKVD responsible for the June deportation, and the puppet Lithuanian SSR regime commanders were forced to flee into the Latvian SSR through the Daugava river. From November 7th, 2020, The Tourism Information Centre at Rotušes a. Kaunas was a centre of Jewish learning, and the yeshiva in Slobodka (Vilijampolė) was one of Europe's most prestigious institutes of higher Jewish learning. Library and Health Sciences Information Center of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, 2007, Center for Science Studies and Business of Kaunas University of Technology Santakos Valley, 2013), G. Balčytis (e.g. The county is divided into municipalities: The country's second-largest airport has served one million passengers two months earlier than last year. Т.Т.1–50. , To prevent possible easy access through the city and protect the western borders of Russia, the Kovno Fortress was built. The county's coat of arms can be blazoned as follows: Gules, an aurochs head caboshed argent ensigned by a cross Or between his horns enclosed by a bordure purpure charged with ten evenly distributed crosses of Lorraine Or. During the Gothic period, the Kaunas Castle (13th–16th centuries), Old Kaunas Ducal Palace (15th century), Church of Vytautas the Great (beginning of the 15th century; also known as the Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary), Church of Saint Nicholas (late 15th century), St. George's Church and the Bernardine Monastery (1472), Church of St. Gertrude (15th–16th centuries; also has Renaissance elements), Kaunas Cathedral Basilica (construction began in the 15th century; later was reconstructed and expanded), Kaunas Town Hall (construction began in 1542; later gained late Baroque and early Classicism forms), House of Perkūnas (late 15th century – early 16th century), residential houses in the Town Hall Square, Vilnius and Kurpių Streets were built. During it, the ultimatum presented by the Soviet Union was debated. Kaunas began to gain prominence, since it was at an intersection of trade routes and a river port. Esperanto: La Distrikto Kaunas estas unu el dek administraj distriktoj de Litovio, kaj troviĝas en la centro de la ŝtato. An earlier Russian name was Ковно Kovno, although Каунас Kaunas has been used since 1940. There was established static circus in the Vytautas park of Kaunas in the beginning of the 19th century.  On All Souls' Day in 1956, the first public anti-Soviet protest rally took place in Kaunas: citizens burned candles in the Kaunas military cemetery and sang national songs, resulting in clashes with the Militsiya. The city and its elderates also have names in other languages (see Names of Kaunas in other languages and names of Kaunas elderates in other languages). These Romans were supposedly led by a patrician named Palemon, who had three sons: Barcus, Kunas and Sperus. Later, many of the Seminary students were active in Lithuanian book smuggling; its chief main objective was to resist the Russification policy. Faculty of Medicine at Vytautas Magnus University, built in 1933, now belongs to the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Vytautas the Great War Museum and M. K. Čiurlionis National Art Museum, built in 1936), while Modernism and national style intertwined in the Kaunas Central Post Office (architect F. Vizbaras), built in 1932, Kaunas Garrison Officers' Club Building (architect S. Kudokas and others), built in 1937. English: Kaunas County is one of ten administrative districts of Lithuania, situated in the centre of the country. , In June 1940, the Soviet Union occupied and annexed Lithuania in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. And when someone eventually visits it most likely it is Vilnius – the beautiful capital (that’s especially the case of Polish people). Many people listened to the Lithuanian national anthem with tears in their eyes. No trip to Lithuania would be complete without visiting Kaunas, the country’s second largest city and former temporary capital.  In November 2019, Kauno autobusai signed a contract for 100 new model units of MAN Lion's City 12 hybrid electric buses, which will replace over half of city's current buses. Check flight prices and hotel availability for your visit. The Town Hall in Kaunas played an important role in the Medieval Times as a center for trade, festivals, and criminals were brought here for punishment. To orientate yourself in advance, especially if the time of your stay in the city is limited. From the 7th decade of the 20th century Modernism style buildings were further developed. Things to Do in Kaunas County, Lithuania: See Tripadvisor's 7,522 traveler reviews and photos of Kaunas County attractions. The military coup d'état took place in Kaunas on 17 December 1926. , On 14 June 1940 just before midnight, the last meeting of the Lithuanian Government was held in Kaunas.  Forms of classicist architecture are typical in the Aukštoji Freda Manor (early 19th century), post station building complex (early 19th century; architect J.  Jews made up much of the city's commercial, artisan, and professional sectors. 4, Kaunas 44280, Lithuania. Kaunas boasts some beautiful architecture, kooky museums, and historically important sites, making any trip worthwhile. There are four old Jewish cemeteries within city limits. 1 p. 10. Catherine's Monastery, 2000) E. Miliūnas (e.g. In 1919 the Kaunas county (apskritis) was established. There are also some innovative companies located in Kaunas, such as leading wholesaler of computer components, data storage media "ACME group", internet and TV provider, communications JSC "Mikrovisata group", developer and producer original products for TV and embedded technologies JSC "Selteka". Kaunas County is one of the ten counties of Lithuania.The capital city is Kaunas.On 1 July 2010, the county administration was ended. The city covers 15,700 hectares. An Irish low-cost airline Ryanair announced Kaunas Airport as their 40th base and first in the Central Europe in February 2010. Kaunas. 15 will be closed. Kaunas County (Lithuanian: Kauno apskritis) is one of ten counties of Lithuania.  The city interwar architecture is regarded as among the finest examples of European Art Deco and has received the European Heritage Label. , Jews began settling in Kaunas in the second half of the 17th century. Kaunas is served by a number of major motorways. Kaunas International Airport (KUN) is the second-busiest airport in Lithuania and fourth-busiest airport in the Baltic states.  A day later the main forces marched into the city without obstruction and almost as if they were on parade. Get directions, maps, and traffic for . Both before and during the German occupation starting 25 June, the anti-Communists, encouraged by the anti-Semitic leadership of the Berlin-based Lithuanian Activist Front (LAF), began to attack Jews, blaming them for the Soviet repressions, especially along Jurbarko and Kriščiukaičio streets. The construction of the Kaunas Railway Tunnel and Railway Bridge across the Nemunas river helped move goods from the eastern part of Russian Empire west to the German Empire and Kaunas grew rapidly in the second part of the 19th century. Lithuania. С.-Петербург: 1903–1905, Our Lord Jesus Christ's Resurrection Basilica, names of Kaunas elderates in other languages, Soviet–Lithuanian Mutual Assistance Treaty, Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (1940), German occupation of Lithuania during World War II, Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (1944), Chronicle of the Catholic Church in Lithuania, Kaunas Cultural Centre of Various Nations, Museum of the History of Lithuanian Medicine and Pharmacy, Povilas Stulga Museum of Lithuanian Folk Instruments, St. George's Church and the Bernardine Monastery, Church of the Holy Trinity and the Bernardine monastery, signatories of the 1918 Act of Independence, Association of Local Authorities in Lithuania, fourth-busiest airport in the Baltic states, Hospital of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences Kaunas Clinics, Vilnius University Kaunas Faculty of Humanities, Mykolas Romeris University Faculty of Public Security, Martynas Mažvydas National Library of Lithuania, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, List of twin towns and sister cities in Lithuania, "Kodėl Kaunas buvo vadinamas mažuoju Paryžiumi? Prominent religious features of Kaunas include: Kaunas city is a centered around culture. In the Russian Empire, it was the capital of the Kaunas Governorate from 1843 to 1915. There’s always a decision to be made when looking for a hotel in a new place. Visit the hearth of Lithuania and experience its unique atmosphere. The current Provisional Government should be transformed into a National Committee or Council under the German military authority.  The open-air concerts of the historical 49-bell Carillon of Kaunas are held on weekends. The oldest part of Kaunas was connected with Žaliakalnis neighbourhood in 1889. Ethnic Lithuanians account for 5/6 of the population, which makes the country one of the most homogeneous in the Baltic States.  Despite regaining the beloved historical capital, the Presidency and the Government remained in Kaunas. Farthest Point from Kaunas, Lithuania Estimated population of 342,768, - scroll down to which country and city is farthest from Kaunas, Lithuania. The Sicherheitsdienst confiscated the pictures of the wreath-laying ceremony, thinking that it could be dangerous for the German occupation policy in Lithuania. A water and waste water system, costing more than 15 million Lithuanian litas, was put in place, the city expanded from 18 to 40 square kilometres (6.9 to 15.4 sq mi), more than 2,500 buildings were built, plus three modern bridges over the Neris and Nemunas rivers.  Ąžuolynas (literally, "Oak Grove") park is a main public park in the heart of Kaunas. , Initially prior to World War II, Lithuania declared neutrality. ", "Chiune Sugihara, Japan Diplomat Who Saved 6,000 Jews During Holocaust, Remembered", "Centre For Asian Studies | ASC, Asian Studies, VMU, Lithuania, Kaunas", "Stasys Knezys. The uprising soon expanded to Vilnius and other locations. Places nearby are Aleksotas, Šilainiai and Eiguliai. It was established as the Central Library of Lithuania in 1919. Members of the Provisional Government then went as a body to the Garden of the Vytautas the Great War Museum, where they laid a wreath near the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in the presence of numerous audience. Kaunas is the second biggest city in Lithuania, located at the country's center. The Kronika started a new phase of resistance in the life of Lithuania's Catholic Church and of all Lithuania fighting against the occupation by making known to the world the violation of the human rights and freedoms in Lithuania for almost two decades. It is the largest and most populous of the three Baltic states. Buildings ( e.g 157 ] the styles of Classicism and Modernism intertwined in buildings built the... Banner of the Lithuania 's industrial output the ten counties of Lithuania in accordance with the Pact... 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Second largest city and former temporary capital of culture 2022 state-owned railway company Lithuanian Railways,.